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This section will provide basic information on nutrition / diet

           A. Calcium – for bone formation
    • Deficiency - can cause Ricketts, bone problems
    • Excess - renal calculi
    • Sources - milk, green leafy vegetables, eggs
    Note: The recommended dietary intake for premenopausal women (age, 31-50) years and women on hormone therapy is 1000 mg calcium/day by way of diet or supplementary form
      For women aged 51 to 70 years, 1200 mg calcium/day is recommendedWomen older than 65 years should ingest 1500 mg calcium/day. Adequate daily calcium intake is recommendation for any woman at risk of or currently being treated for osteoporosis.
B. Sodium - for Osmotic pressure and acid-base balance
    • Deficiency - can cause electrolyte imbalance.
    • Excess - Hypertension (HTN), electrolyte imbalance
    • Sources - table salt, most canned processed foods.
C. Potassium – for protein synthesis and water balance in cells
  • Deficienty - can cause arrhythmias, electrolyte imbalance.
  • Excess - electrolyte imbalance.
  • Sources – grains, meats, vegetables Cantaloupe and Baked potato contain a lot of potassium. Orange juice has potassium.  Raisin and bananas too
D. Iron – Hemoglobin synthesis
  • Deficiency – can cause anemia and lethargy
  • Excess – constipation
  • Sources – liver, oysters,Meat, egg yolks, green leafy vegetable, legumes, nuts, dried fruits, wheat, oatmeal, brown rice, raisins. baked potato, banana, orange juice, cantaloupe.
Note: Vitamin C enhances the absorption of iron.
E. Phosphurus - for bone formation and cell permeability
  • Deficiency – can cause Rickets
  • Excess –
  • Sources – milk, eggs, nut
F. Flouride – for dental health
  • Deficiency – can cause dental carries
  • Excess –
  • Sources – clean water supply
I. Iodine  to prevent Thyroid hormone problems
  • Deficiency – can cause goiter
  • Excess –
  • Sources – seafood, iodized salt.
I. Fat Solube Vitamins
A - good for acuity and adapting to light and dark
  • Deficiency – can cause night blindness
  • Excess – CNS changes (lethargy / headache); dry skin and hair loss
  • Sources – carrots, green leafy vegetables, cheese, egg yolks, milk

D – good for better absorption of calcium and phosphorus

  • Deficiency – can cause rickets, bone growth problems.
  • Excess – kidney stones.
  • Sources – fish , oils, Sunlight

E - an antioxidant

  • Deficiency – can cause hemolytic anemia.
  • Excess – fatigue, blurred vision, diarrhea.
  • Sources – Liver, fats, oils, nuts, grains,

K - for blood clotting

  • Deficiency – can cause bleeding
  • Excess – anemia liver or kidney damage.
  • Sources – eggs, lefty vegetables, synthesized by inner bacteria (see Gastrointestinal section )
II.                Water Soluble Vitamins
Thiamine (B1) – good for normal cell growth and for carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Deficiency – can cause Beriberi characterezed by decreased reflexes, fatigue and numbness
  • Excess – Shock
  • Sources – Legumes, meat, eggs and fish, Pork has the best source in comparison to beef, fish and chicken.

Ribloflavin (B2) – good for protein and energy metabolism

  • Deficiency – can cause tissue inflammation
  • Excess –
  • Sources – Liver, organ meats, milk

Pyridoxine (B6) – good for amino acid metabolism and for synthesis of heme, a component of hemoglobin

NOTE: Amino acid – the basic structure of proteins and there are 20 amino acids required by the body, 13 are non-essential, meaning the body can make them and 9 are essential, thus, the body can’t make them and must be obtained from food.
  • Deficiency – can cause anemia, peripheral metabolism
  • Excess – diminished proprioceptive sensory function
  • Sources – Corn, soy, meat, liver, egg yolk Pork, fish, chicken

Cyanocobalmin (B12) – good for RBC formation and nerve function

  • Deficiency – can cause Pernicious anemia (megaloblastic anemia) a problem with those on Vegetarian diet NOTE: Schilling test is done to determines one’s ability to absorb B12
  • Excess
  • Sources – Meat, liver, eggs (dairy products), dried beans sweet potatoes, Brussels sprouts

Folic Acid – good for RBC formation

  • Deficiency – can cause night blindness
  • Excess – CNS changes (lethargy / headache)
  • Souces Green leafy vegetables, beets, kidney beans, cantaloupe, oranges
Niacin – good for normal gowth
  • Deficiency – can cause Pellagra characterized by rough, scaly skin, glossitis.
  • Excess – flushing, vasodilation
  • Sources – meat, grains

Ascorbic Acid (C ) – good for collagen synthesis

  • Deficiency – can cause scurvy characterized by joint pain and weakness.
  • Excess – oxalate hypersensitivity
  • Sources – fruits particularly citrus and tomatoes, vegetables

Clear liquid diet
  • Usually given to postoperative patients or those experiencing vomiting and diarrhea
  • Given to those who will undergo colonoscopy preparation to clean the colon.
  • Includes water, clear sodas and broths, gelatin, and juices usually without the pulp,
  • MILK is usually not included
Full Liquid Diet
  • To prevent GI upset or activity particularly after surgery.
  • No solids aloud and must not include MILK products. Gelatin, tea, nor broth
Low Residue diet
  • Given to minimize intestinal activity for those with GI problems or those having bowel elimination issues
  • May include buttered rice, sponge cake, processed foods
  • Avoid any fried foods
Low Sodium diet
  • Helps lower body water and prevent Hypertension, heart failure or cirrhosis
  • Applesauce, baked chicken
  • As general rule, cheese that is more yellow in color is more fattening and contains more sodium.

Ascites / Liver problems
  • Must have diet high in protein
  • Limit salt intake to prevent further fluid build up
  • Avoid uncooked shellfish, clams, oysters
Celiac disease
  • Anything that contains flour made from wheat is not allowed
  • Rice or millet are allowed.
  • Eat foods high in fiber and drink lots of fluid.
  • Avoid raw foods and uncooked foods.
  • Drink clear liquids but avoid alcohol and anything with caffeine.
  • Avoid dairy products, fatty foods, and high fiber foods.
Gassy foods
  • Eliminate foods such as beans, cabbage and broccoli, raw fruit juices and fruits - especially citrus fruits.
  • Avoid foods high in purine: beans, peas, spinach, oatmeal, poultry, fish, liver, lobster and oysters
Renal / Kidney diet
  • A person with renal problem generally must limit protein, potassium and sodium intake
  • Can have unsalted vegetables, white rice
Foods high in Tyramine
  • Remind yourself to think of foods that are aged or fermented such as cheeses; yeast or meat extracts; smoked or pickled meat, poultry, or fish; fermented sausage (bologna, pepperoni, salami, summer sausage) or other fermented meat; sauerkraut; or any over ripe fruit or Wine 

Vegetarian Diet
  • Other than health reasons, one may choose to be on a Vegetarian diet due to religious reasons (i.e Seventh Day Adventist)
  • Risk for Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Individuals on pure vegetarian diet can have high levels of Vitamin A


    1. Pure Vegan – does not eat any foods that are produced by animals (i.e. eggs, cheese, milk)
    2. Lactovegetarian – does include products of animals, such as milk, cheese and yogurt.
    3. Ovovegetarian – egg is the only source of animal protein.
    4. Red meat abstainers – eat animal products except red meat.

Muslim/ Moslem
  • Pork is prohibited
  • Alcohol is prohibited
  • Meats should be Halal, that is drained of blood.
Orthodox Jewish
  • Meat must be Kosher, that is drained of blood.
  • Pork, animals that died of natural death, birds of prey and fish without scales (shellfish) are not allowed.
  • Milk is not allowed to taken with meat and must only be taken 6 hours after eating meat.


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